There are evidences of pre-historic humans existing this region. It is also believed that a large number of people inhabiting this region had actually migrated from Central Asia and the Indian plains time to time. The first race to enter this region was Proto-Australoid, the second was Mongoloid, and the third was Aryan. There is mention in the Rig Veda of Dasyus and Nishads living in this region and their powerful king Shambra who had 99 forts. The Aryans, who were superior in war tactics, defeated the local tribes and settled here permanently. This period also saw the establishment of small Janpadas (republics) in Himachal. They had a good relationship with the Mauryans, which made sure that they remain independent for a long time. Their independence lost with the rise of the Guptas in the North Gangetic plains.
After the decline of the Guptas, several small kingdoms came to rule this hilly state and established their power in its different regions. They continuously fought with each other and the history Himachal Pradesh is full of the stories and legends related to these kingdoms. The British established many hill stations in this region to protect themselves from the extreme heat and dust of the northern plains in the summer. Shimla became the summer capital of India and even today, many old houses and buildings tell the story of English grandeur. Himachal Pradesh, which had the status of a union territory after independence, was granted statehood in 1971.